Fundacion Tatiana Catedra etica ambiental UAH Universidad de Alcala
CO2Web Online Observatory


The European Union has been committed to the development of methodologies that allow the calculation, certification and standardized communication of the CF of products and organizations, as shown by the pilot projects carried out in recent years. The standards or regulations for the calculation of CF are usually distinguished according to their scope of application: on the one hand, those that apply to organizations, and on the other, those that apply to products, services or events.

In Spain, significant progress has been made relating to the calculation, verification and compensation of GHG emissions from public and private organizations, in addition to having developed calculators aimed at the CF inventory, both for this type of entities and for agricultural operations (MITECO, 2018). However, experiences on the calculation of emissions from food products and their communication to consumers are very scarce and have not been sufficiently encouraged to date.

For the calculation of CF of an organization, the most commonly managed regulations are ISO 14064 and the GHG Protocol. An institution's emissions inventory, among other issues, can contribute to:

  • Comply with national and European regulations.
  • Identify the possible margins for reducing emissions, saving energy, reducing production costs, etc.
  • Manage the negative impacts caused by GHGs.
  • Participate in voluntary GHG reduction programs.
  • Improve Corporate Environmental Responsibility.
  • Improve the competitiveness of the company.

In calculating the CF of products and services, the three most commonly used standards are the so-called PAS 2050, ISO 14067 and the GHG Protocol Product Standard. In this case, the GHG inventory of products or services is based on the Life Cycle Analysis methodology.

The calculation and communication of the CF of a product or service can contribute to:

  • Reduce the impact on climate change of consumer products.
  • Provide information to consumers to promote more responsible consumption.
  • Better position products in an increasingly demanding market with regard to environmental sustainability.